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Global Iodine Deficiency Disorders Prevention Day 2019

Global Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) Prevention Day or World Iodine Deficiency Day is observed every year on 21st October. Iodine is an essential micronutrient required for normal thyroid function, growth, and development.

Iodine deficiency can lead to a variety of health and developmental consequences known as iodine deficiency disorders (IDDs). Iodine deficiency is a major cause of preventable mental retardation. Iodine deficiency is especially damaging during pregnancy and in early childhood. In their most severe forms, IDDs can lead to cretinism, stillbirth and miscarriage; even mild deficiency can cause a significant loss of learning ability.

Magnitude of IDDs

IDDs are a worldwide major public health problem. More than 1.5 billion people all over the world are at risk of IDD. In our country, it is estimated that more than 200 million people are at risk of IDDs and 71 million persons are suffering from goiter and other IDDs. However, all these disorders can be easily prevented before they occur. The simplest method to prevent the broad spectrum of IDD is to consume iodated salt daily.  

National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP)

Realizing the magnitude of the problem the Government of India launched a 100 per cent centrally assisted National Goitre Control Programme (NGCP) in 1962.  In August, 1992 the National Goitre Control Programme (NGCP) was renamed as National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme (NIDDCP) with the inclusion of wide spectrum of Iodine Deficiency Disorders(IDD). The programme is being implemented in all the States/UTs for entire population.

Goal of NIDDCP:

  • To bring the prevalence of IDD to below 5% in the country.
  • To ensure 100% consumption of adequately iodated salt (15ppm) at the household level.

Objectives:

  • Surveys to assess the magnitude of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in the districts.
  • Supply of iodated salt in place of common salt.
  • Resurveys to assess iodine deficiency disorders and the impact of iodated salt after every 5 years in the districts.
  • Laboratory monitoring of iodated salt and urinary iodine excretion.
  • Health Education and Publicity.

To ensure the use of iodated salt the Government of India has issued the notification banning the sale of non-iodated salt for direct human consumption in the country with effect from May, 2006 under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act 1954. Findings of National Family Health Survey-4 (NFHS,2015-16) shows that 93% of households are using iodized salt as compare to 73% in NFHS-3(2005-06).

“Universal use of iodized salt is a simple, inexpensive method of preventing IDDs”.

References-

https://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/idd/en/

https://dghs.gov.in/content/1348_3_NationalIodineDeficiency.aspx

nhm.gov.in/images/pdf/programmes/ndcp/niddcp/faq_niddcp.pdf

nhm.gov.in/images/pdf/programmes/ndcp/niddcp/revised_guidelines.pdf